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MATH

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Music adds such a level on enjoyment and creativity to life.  As the Choir Director at Mad River Middle School, Tiffany Hesselbart sees this firsthand.  In this field, it is essential for Tiffany and her students to understand basic math.  Although math skills cannot give you a better singing voice, it may help those who already sound beautiful when they sing!

Can you explain what you do for a living? 

I teach seventh-grade choir. I have approximately 140 students split between 4 classes.

When do you use basic math in your job?

Math is very important in music so we use it every day. We talk about the number of beats in each measure. We talk about the values of different types of notes and rests. For example, I may ask the class what the value of a quarter note is, and when they say one beat, I ask them what happens to the note if it has a dot on it.  They have to know that a dot equals half of the value of the no, and that it would then equal one and one half beats. In addition, we talk about how two eighth notes equal one quarter note, two quarter notes equal one half note, and two half notes equal one whole note.

Do you use any technology (like calculators or computers) to help with this math?

Our math is basic fractional math that does not require a calculator.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

Math and music go hand in hand. I explain to students every day that they need to understand fractions in order to understand music. If I could not explain that to students, then they would not understand many aspects of music. So it not only helps me do my job better, it is absolutely essential.

How comfortable with math do you feel? 

I am comfortable with math that I use every day, but math is not my strong suit.

What kind of math did you take in high school?

I took algebra 1 and 2 in high school.  Also, I took geometry. I think that I was good at it them because I was in accelerated math. However, when I took math in college, I realized I was not as good at it as I had originally thought.

Did you have to learn new skills in order to do the math you use in your job?

No, the math I use daily is basic math that middle schoolers can understand so that I can meet my teaching and learning goals with them.

So, when Tiffany’s students utilize their basic math skills in choir, I bet it is music to her ears.  If you have questions for Tiffany, send them my way, and I will be happy to send them to her!

Photo Credit: Brandon Giesbrecht via Compfight cc

You have more than likely heard of Mary Kay Cosmetics.  Tina Frantz, is an Executive Senior Sales Director with Mary Kay Cosmetics.  When she  started with Mary Kay, I am sure she had no idea how much math was going to be involved.  Read on to see how math plays a really big part!  

Can you explain what you do for a living? 

I sell Mary Kay products to people all over the United States.  Other aspects of my job include mentoring other women in the business, teaching them skills to build a successful Mary Kay business including time management skills, business management, money management, emotional management, and other skills specific to the field of buying and selling these products. I also teachcustomers and consultants how to apply cosmetics to themselves and how to take great care of their skin. I oversee the efforts of 900+ women in Mary Kay.  Then, I directly teach and coach over 200+ women and men.

When do you use basic math in your job?

I use math every day in my field. Specifically, when I am calculating sales and tax.  Simple addition and subtraction is key. Calculating sales tax using percentages is a daily application. On a larger scale, we use math to set goals and break down goals, using averages and numbers all the time. For example, we know that the AVERAGE skin care party will retail around $275.00. We also know that we profit 50 percent of everything we sell. So, if we want to make an average of $400 in profit per week, we should hold about three parties per week. We also know that the average hold rate is 50 percentage. So, to hold three parties, we need to book six parties.

Also, calculating my paycheck is really fun too. I use percentages a lot for that as well. We make 50 percent off everything we sell, but we also make a percentage on what our team sells. That percentage changes depending on the number of people on our team. So, math is very useful and helpful for those purposes as well.

I also track all of my totals to determine what I need to do differently or where my focus needs to be for the next week or month. We are always tracking how many faces we do as a whole group, how much product we sell, and how many people are starting new businesses with us. This helps us to see what we may need to improve on or what we are doing well.

Do you use any technology (like calculators or computers) to help with this math?

I use calculators to determine the percentages and when calculating sales tax. I also use a calculator for calculating my check when the numbers aren’t easy, especially when building a team and adding the sales of the team. However, finding 50 percent is easy because it’s just half of whatever the total number is.

A series of studies over a long period of time determined the averages that I use. I am always tracking numbers daily and weekly to see if theses averages stay true. I track my numbers using a spreadsheet on a computer or tablet.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

Using math and numbers in my career helps me focus on what makes money. It also helps me to focus on the reality of the effort I am putting into the business, instead of the feelings I may be having about it. Math puts things in black and white. So, if I are feeling frustrated about my results, I can look at my activity and then see that it’s no surprise why the results are the way that they are.  Also, I can see how I can increase without being frustrated. It helps me see where our efforts need to be each month. It also helps goals seem more attainable. Mary Kay always said, “You can’t eat an elephant whole, but you can eat it piece by piece.” By breaking down numbers, I can see how truly attainable a “bigger” goal is.

How comfortable with math do you feel? 

I feel very comfortable with the math at work. I have not always felt that way. I have had great training and education specifically on how to use this math at work so my comfort level is very high.

What kind of math did you take in high school?

I got through calculus in high school and college. I was not comfortable with it and still don’t feel comfortable with all forms of math. I always felt that I was good at it until my junior year when taking pre-calc. After that, I lost a lot of interest.

Did you have to learn new skills in order to do the math you use in your job?

It was something that I picked up with the skills I obtained in school. However, there were a few times when I needed help. But now, I feel like a PRO! 🙂

There is a lot to this job, right?  I find it inspiring!  Tina uses a great deal of math to get her products in the hands of customers. If you would like to know more about Tina’s job, let me know and I will connect you with her.

Photo Credit: pumpkincat210 via Compfight cc

We owe a great big thanks to teachers! They equip us with many of the basic skills that we use on a daily basis.  Beth McBride has been an educator for over twenty-nine years, and currently she is a seventh-grade language arts teacher.  I got the chance to speak with her about her job and the use of math in her daily work.

Can you explain what you do for a living? 

I educate students at the middle school level in standards related to reading, writing and vocabulary.

When do you use basic math in your job?

Grading is one place where math is used.  The actual computation is done through electronic grade programs, but weighting values of assignments is still a human process.  Math is used to analyze test results and gauge student learning.

Do you use any technology (like calculators or computers) to help with this math?

Absolutely!  My strength is English. In the middle school, math teachers and English teachers have a healthy respect for and rivalry against each other.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

Math is an exercise in reasoning, problem solving and utilizing already proven strategies to get where you want to go. Life is an exercise in reasoning, problem solving and utilizing already proven strategies to get where you want to go.

What kind of math did you take in high school?

I took all of the required college prep courses. I LOVED geometry, but the only “D” I have ever received in my life was in high school algebra. My father, an engineer, insisted on “helping” me, and his older methods were different than those I learned in school. I “fired” him and got a B.

Did you have to learn new skills in order to do the math you use in your job?

Several years ago, I taught all subjects.  There was a point when we adopted a variant math program, and I had to relearn many concepts in a new way to present as the state believed it should be taught.  It is difficult to relearn something you know using a variant method. Now, I understand how my father felt in the above scenario.

As we see every week in the Math at Work Monday series, math plays a vital role in more jobs than we realize.  Educators like Beth give us many of the skills we need to succeed in life.

Photo CreditPhoto Credit: Forty Two. via Compfight cc

Man oh, man! You’re in for a treat today–especially if, like me your favorite character on Law & Order SVU is Dr. Huang. Jaime Adkins has been a forensic psychologist for six years. Basic math allows her to manage her time, so that she can meet those pressing deadlines.

Can you explain what you do for a living? 

I complete court-ordered evaluations of felony-level offenders in 11 counties. I complete interviews and psychological assessments to offer the court a professional opinion regarding issues of competency to stand trial, not guilty by reason of insanity, death penalty mitigations, intervention in lieu of conviction and bindover status for juveniles.

When do you use basic math in your job?

I use very little math in my profession. The majority of math is simple addition and subtraction for time management. We are allotted 30 days to complete our evaluations. This amount of time includes the interview, assessment, travel time, report writing, etc. I have to calculate the amount of time needed. Also, I have to report the amount of time that was spent on each portion of the assessment.

Do you use any technology (like calculators or computers) to help with this math?

No. It is simple math that I am able to complete in my head without a calculator or computer.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

Math contributes to time management. This affects productivity and the budget. By utilizing math I am able to determine if I am spending too much or too little time on certain aspects. Although my job is not always time specific (as some cases are more difficult), it still keeps a boundary.

How comfortable with math do you feel? 

I am comfortable with simple math that is required at work. In general, I do not feel comfortable with math. I have always had difficulty with higher level mathematics.

What kind of math did you take in high school?

I took Algebra and Calculus. I did not enjoy it and had difficulty with it. I often had to ask my older brother for help with my homework. I was thrilled when I completed my last class relating to mathematics.

Curious to know more?  Let me know any questions you have, and I’ll see if she can spare some time to answer.

Photo Credit Photo Credit: Jack Mallon via Compfight cc

Today, we interview Shayna Hartman, the cook supervisor and team lead at a retirement community dining facility.  As we learn more about the details of her job, you will see how Shayna uses math each and every day to serve meals and oversee her team.

Can you explain what you do for a living?

For the past fourteen years, I have been a cook in a retirement community.While much of my job involves measuring, another part of my job is to handle the schedule for more than 20 people. This includes conducting interviews, ordering, keeping inventory and taking care of disciplinary problems when needed.

When do you use basic math in your job?

In my job I have to use math skills to be able to convert recipes from a small amount to an amount that will feed a hundred people. Also, I have to make sure no one goes over their 40-hour work schedule.  Another facet of my job is budgeting.  For example, when a new department opened, I was in charge of the $150,000 budget.  This involved me looking at many different details.

Do you use any technology (like calculators or computers) to help with this math?

I use technology in my job when using math. It would take a lot longer without a calculator to add up labor, inventory costs, and many other things that come with running the department. If I didn’t use a calculator, my workload would be immensely increased.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

Math helps me do my job better because I can stay under budget and adjust hours so my employees get equal amounts of working time.

How comfortable with math do you feel?

I am very comfortable doing any type of math. I enjoy using math in my job and personal life. Math comes easy to me. I use it in any situation that I can. Math is what I enjoy, and I like to learn.

What kind of math did you take in high school?

In high school, I took Geometry, Algebra 2 and Pre-Calculus. I feel like I am very good in math, but when I get to a huge problem, I quit. In Pre-Calculus I was doing great.  I quit trying when I had a two-page problem, and I didn’t need the class to graduate.

Did you have to learn new skills in order to do the math you use in your job?

I went to college to learn the skills that I need to do my job. So, I learned my skills in both high school and college.

Can you imagine increasing a recipe so that it feeds 100? Shayna is more than willing to give you some pointers.  For more information from Shayna, ask in the comments section.

Photo Credit: SkyFireXII via Compfight cc

Properties that are damaged by fire, water, storms, smoke, or mold require the services of a professional.  This is a job for Nate Dawson, Restoration Hero and President of Sterling Restoration.  Read on to see how he uses math to restore damaged properties back to mint condition.

Can you explain what you do for a living?

Sterling Restoration specializes in emergency repair to real property whether damaged by fire, water, storm, smoke or mold. Sterling Restoration is trusted for high quality and comprehensive cleanup, mitigation, and restoration services for both residential and commercial projects. We are a locally owned company based in Springfield, Ohio serving the Miami Valley and Central Ohio areas. We take pride in knowing that our team of professionals and extensive network of resources have the expertise to return any property to its pre-loss condition as quickly as possible.

When do you use basic math in your job?

Basic math is used in all aspects of our business including our accounting, estimating and production departments. Our accounting department uses it to calculate payroll, receivables, and payables. Our estimators use math more than anyone in our business. During the estimating process for reconstruction, we use square footage formulas (L x W) for calculating materials used, for example:  subfloor framing, roof framing , insulation, drywall, painting, etc.. We use square yard formulas (L x W/9) for calculating vinyl floors and carpet. Basic algebra formulas are used for calculating rafter lengths based on the rise and run of roof slopes.

One of our most interesting uses of basic math, and one I will focus on going forward is with water mitigation (returning a structure to dry standard). Basically, drying a wet building! Once we determine the affected area we then use a cubic footage formula (L x W x H) along with the extent of saturation to know how much dehumidification is needed. Dehumidifiers are rated based upon how many pints of water they are capable of removing from the air within a specific amount of time (AHAM Rating). Therefore, depending on the type of dehumidification used and it’s rating, we are able to determine the number of dehumidifiers we need to dry a structure within the standards of our industry (S-500 ANSI approved standard). We also use the atmospheric readings to determine whether we are creating the desired conditions required to remove water from affected materials and to determine the effectiveness of our equipment. To do this we use the temperature and relative humidity to determine specific humidity (the weight of moisture p/lbs of air) and dew point (the temperature at which water vapor will begin to condense). The formula we use to determine the number of dehumidifiers needed is as follows:

Step 1 – Determine Cubic feet (CF).

Step 2 – CF/Class Factor(a low grain refrigerant dehu has a class factor of 40 in a class two loss) = # of AHAM pints needed.

Step 3  – AHAM points needed/Dehumidifier rating = number of dehumidifiers needed.

I know! It’s starting to sound a little complicated but it is all basic math.

Do you use any technology (like calculators or computers) to help with this math? Why or why not?

Absolutely! Even though we are in the building trade we are not in the dark ages. We use the most advanced estimating system designed specifically for the insurance restoration (property repair) business. After in-putting the dimensions into a sketch type format, this system automatically calculates all the square footages, cubic footages, and linear footages. The next step is to add a specific line item. For example, when you add drywall to your estimate  it uses a current square foot price to calculate how much to charge for hanging, taping and finishing the drywall in your project. It will also calculate how many sheets of drywall, how many fasteners are needed , how much drywall tape, and how much joint compound is needed. Finally, it will calculate the material sales tax and any state sales tax on the service.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

I do not feel it’s a matter of doing my job better. I simply could not perform my job without math! As I stated earlier, we use math in every aspect of our business. I do not feel there are too many moments throughout the day that I am not using some form of math.

What kind of math did you take in high school?

During my high school years I completed algebra and some trigonometry. If I remember correctly, that was all that was offered (yes, I graduated high school 32 years ago). Once leaving high school I furthered my math education in mechanical engineering. In my opinion, the levels of math being taught in high school today are far superior to what was then taught.

Did you like it/feel like you were good at it?

I feel like there are individuals that have an aptitude for math and those who do not. Math will obviously come easy for those who have this aptitude. I would also say that if you are good at something, the chances of enjoying it are far greater than if you are not good. Having said that, I do not believe I had this aptitude. Therefore, I had to work a little harder than others, and, at best, I was average at math. Guess where I’m going with this…no I did not like it.

Did you have to learn new skills in order to do the math you use in your job? Or was it something that you could pick up using the skills you learned in school?

I had to learn how to use the math skills I had already acquired to accomplish the task at hand. For example, if you have the lengths of two sides and the angle of a triangle, you can calculate the length of the third side. It is crazy how much I use this algebraic formula; however, it took some time and experience to learn how many applications this formula has. Having said that, ninety percent of my daily tasks require math learned in high school.

Are you interested in learning more about restoration? Let me know and I will pass your information along to Nate.

I hope you never have to go to court. But if you do, you’ll appreciate folks like Amanda Tuttle, who is completely dedicated to accuracy and details. As a judicial assistant, her main responsibility is to keep court records, including video and audio recordings. And that takes a little bit of basic math. 

Can you explain what you do for a living? 

I have been in this role for five years, and I keep the court records of all court proceedings by video and audio.  In addition, I run the equipment. I also hold evidence during trials, and I am responsible for transferring that evidence to the property room once the trial or case is complete. I do a lot of data entry.  This entails typing to file for public record and mailing notices as well as orders and entries to individuals and/or attorneys. 

When do you use basic math in your job?

The only basic math I use is telling time and reading the times in my video log to find a portion of a court hearing. [Editor’s Note: This is not as simple as it sounds, since time is in base 60, while we’re used to managing numbers in base 10.]

Do you use any technology (like calculators or computers) to help with this math?

The technology used for this math is on the computer.  However, I do not use it as an aide to read the time.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

Being able to read time helps me do my job better because I can easily tell time to look for specific portions of the record. I have to do this in order to provide a copy to the judge to make a ruling or to provide a copy to the transcribing company.

How comfortable with math do you feel?

I feel comfortable with basic math. This math does not feel different to me, because I learned how to tell time in early childhood and use it everyday.

 What kind of math did you take in high school?

I took algebra and geometry in high school. I liked algebra, and I did feel like I was good at it. I actually enjoyed it. However, I did not like geometry and was not very good at it.

Are you intrigued by the role of judicial assistant?  I found it interesting to hear about what goes on behind the scenes.  Any questions for Amanda…let me know!

When we purchase a product we do not even think of the processes that have to take place in order for the product to reach our hands.  So much is involved on the back end of things. Tammy Landrum is the purchasing coordinator BSF, Inc., and she understands the entire process including the math.

Can you explain what you do for a living? 

I work in the purchasing department, and I have been in this profession for seven and a half years.  Our company makes pump motor adaptors.  I process all of the purchase orders, and I purchase products from outside sources that are needed to complete the orders we receive.  I schedule shipments and create documents needed by our machinists in order to make the parts and the documents needed by our shipping department to ship the parts.

When do you use basic math in your job?

I use math each day when I send an order acknowledgement to the customer verifying the cost on each order. Sometimes I have to cost the part before I process the order.  Costing involves calculating the cost to manufacture the part during each phase of production and the marking that price up by a certain percentage to produce our profit margin.

Do you use any technology (like calculators or computers) to help with this math?

Yes, I use a computer everyday to input the orders and also to cost the orders. We have a configuration that calculates the price of each part. We quote the part to a customer and they place the order.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

I would not be able to calculate the total amount due for each order without using math. Also, I could not calculate the price of each part without math.

How comfortable with math do you feel? 

I’m somewhat comfortable with math. I don’t have to do many calculations in my head.  I have a computer for that so I don’t think I would be very comfortable doing my job without my computer.

What kind of math did you take in high school?

I took algebra and basic math.  I liked math a lot. I always did well in my math classes.

Did you have to learn new skills in order to do the math you use in your job?

I had to learn to use the software programs needed to do my job. I think my basic math skills made it easier for  me to learn what I needed to in order to do my job well.

Anything else you want to mention?

Math is important in our everyday lives. We use it more than we realize.

Of course, if you want to learn more about the role of math in the job position of purchasing coordinator, just reach out to me, and I will connect with her.

Today, you will meet Bonnee Byrne who is Freelance Artist and Owner of Signs by Bonnee.  She has been painting artwork and signs for the past twenty-six years.  Sound like fun, huh?  She even seems to enjoy the math aspect of the job!

Can you explain what you do for a living? 

I am a painter. This includes painting portraits in charcoal, pastels, and oil paint. I also do other professional artwork such as butcher paper commercial and all occasion banners, window painting, caricatures and illustrations.

When do you use basic math in your job?

The main time that I use math is when I am planning to make very long banners. I work on an easel that is 8 feet long and 4 feet high. Many times my banners have been 20 to 40 feet long. I have to calculate how much to paint on each 8-foot segment in order for the banner to come out right and the wording to be centered.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

It would be impossible to do this job without basic math skills.

How comfortable with math do you feel? 

I am fairly comfortable with basic math all the time. I am not very familiar with advanced math.

What kind of math did you take in high school?

I chose to take Algebra and Geometry only- the minimum amount to graduate. I did not have to have any math in college since I was an art major. I did not like algebra at all and do not feel like I had a complete understanding of it. I did like geometry much better probably because I am an artist and learn things better in a visual format.

Did you have to learn new skills in order to do the math you use in your job?

No, I picked it up using the skills I learned in school.

Goes to show that even if math is not your favorite subject, when used to do something you love…it’s not so bad!.  If you want to hear more about Bonnee’s artwork, let me know I would be happy to connect you!

Many of us work in what we call corporate America. A lot goes on behind the scenes that allows the workers to do their jobs effectively. Tina Boocher is a corporate secretary at her husband’s fabrication business, Boochers, Inc., a a steel manufacturing company — but her responsibilities go way beyond managing email, calendars and meeting agendas. You won’t believe the math she does. 

Can you explain what you do for a living?

I work in the office of a fabrication and repair shop. My job consists of entering orders, making schedules for the employees, working up drawings and prints to build from, bookkeeping and payroll.

When do you use basic math in your job?

I use basic math in just about all applications of my work. When figuring out the dimensions on the prints (which our employees build from), I have to calculate within fractions of an inch what dimensions are required so that we can accurately fabricate and assemble our parts. As for bookkeeping and payroll, math is extremely important because it is used in ALL aspects, whether it is entering items into inventory, tallying outstanding checks to reconcile a bank statement or calculating time cards so that paychecks are printed.

Do you use any technology (like calculators or computers) to help with this math?

Mostly, I use an adding machine to aid my work. Although, I sometimes use a calculator and computer. Spreadsheets, such as Microsoft Excel, are very useful for making reports. Excel requires the user to be able to write math formulas.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

My job would be IMPOSSIBLE to do without math. Without math, we couldn’t make our parts, track our information in our computers, or pay employees.

How comfortable with math do you feel?

I feel fairly comfortable with the math that I use on a regular basis. There are times when we have drawings that require advanced trigonometry in order to build them. At that point I need help from the fabricators who are more familiar with that type of math.

What kind of math did you take in high school?

In high school, I only made it through Algebra 1.

Did you have to learn new skills in order to do the math you use in your job?

I received on-the-job training for bookkeeping, payroll and figuring the dimensions on the prints.

This is a great example of how important the ability to do math is.  If you want more details about Boocher’s or Tina’s use of math at work, comment below. I’ll be happy to ask her! 

With unemployment rates at record levels, temporary agencies are busier than ever.  I had the pleasure of speaking with Aliya Purtee who is the branch manager at Patrick Staffing, a temporary staffing agency.  She not only helps people get placed in jobs but also plays a big part in making sure people are paid.

Can you explain what you do for a living?

I am a branch manager and a payroll specialist at a staffing agency.  As branch manager, I oversee three employees.  An aspect of my role is to listen to the needs of the staff,  and then I ensure that my staff fulfills their needs.  A big part of my job is processing  payroll for about 100 employees each week. This includes checking time cards to make sure there are no additional errors. Also, I engage with approximately 50 customers per week and then our branch takes applications five days a week.

When do you use basic math in your job?

I consistently use basic math skills in my job.  My job consists of calculating hours for payroll, pay and bill rates. Also, I use math to generate company’s markups and to determine a burden rate for worker’s compensation. I use the company’s markup to calculate pay rates and bill rates. Some companies pay a shift premium which also requires calculation.

Do you use any technology (like calculators or computers) to help with this math?

I use a calculator sometimes, but most of the time I do the figures in my head. I enter the figures into the computer. Also, I issue debit cards for the employees that do not have  direct deposit set up. After the time is entered, I print a report that allows me to audit my entries so that I can double check for mistakes.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

If I did not have basic math skills, I could not fulfill my duties at work.

How comfortable with math do you feel?

I am very confident with my math skills.  In my current position I cannot make errors.  If I do, they can have large consequences.

What kind of math did you take in high school?

In high school, I took algebra.  I did not like math in high school, and I refused to challenge myself with advanced classes. I really did not realize how much math is used in our everyday lives. [Tweet this]

Did you have to learn new skills in order to do the math you use in your job?

I did not have to learn new math skills at my job.

The people who manage payroll could easily go unnoticed — until we didn’t get our paychecks! If you have questions for Aliya, post them in the comments section, and I’ll ask her.

You probably see your recycling truck driver every week and yet never think about the ins and outs of their job.  Sarah Penrod is one of those faithful people who picks up your recyclable goods on a regular basis so that you can help make the world a little greener.  I found it interesting to hear about her job.

Can you explain what you do for a living?

I work for South Utah Valley Solid Waste District. I drive a roll-off truck, and I haul recyclable cans and deliver compost. I also work the scale which weighs trucks as they come in and out.

When do you use basic math in your job?

We use math a lot in conversions. We convert pounds into ton and then calculate the price per ton. I also use geometry when I am loading or taking the container off my truck. I have to make sure that I have the right angle so the can is able to slide off correctly rather than on its side.

Do you use any technology (like calculators or computers) to help with this math?

We use a computer to convert most of the weights and dollar amounts for us, but I use geometric principles in my head.

How do you think math helps you do your job better?

I have to understand and know my angles and conversions in order to do my job effectively.

How comfortable with math do you feel?

I feel comfortable with basic math, but anything beyond algebra would require some refresher courses.

What kind of math did you take in high school?

I took Algebra and Geometry.

Did you have to learn new skills in order to do the math you use in your job?

No, the math was something that I already knew.

There may be more you’d like to know about Sarah and the job of driving a recycling truck.  This is something you may not have given much thought before. Now that you’re thinking…if you think of anything else you’d like to ask Sarah, just let me know and I’ll catch her in between routes.